In today’s highly competitive business environment, patents have become an essential aspect of any company’s intellectual property portfolio. Patents protect innovative ideas and products from being copied by competitors, providing a legal monopoly to the owner for a limited period of time. This is why it’s crucial for companies to conduct thorough due diligence before acquiring or licensing any patents.

A patent due diligence checklist is a comprehensive list of tasks that should be performed during the due diligence process. It provides a structured approach to conducting a review of the patent portfolio and ensures that no important information is missed. It is an important tool that can help ensure that a company makes a well-informed decision when it comes to patents.

1. Identifying the Patents

A patent due diligence checklist is an invaluable asset when researching and assessing a company’s intellectual property assets. Not only does it help you avoid mistakes and reduce risk, but it also guarantees that these assets are fairly valued.

The initial step in conducting patent due diligence is to identify the patents being investigated. To do this, search the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database using a patent number. You may also try searching by subject matter of a given patent to uncover similar ones that might be connected.

Another good starting point is business literature, such as magazine or journal articles that discuss a specific product or equipment that could be patentable. This can help you identify target consumer groups, professions, industries, and other potential customers for your invention.

Finally, be sure to verify the manufacturer of any products related to your invention. You can do this by inspecting the product packaging or reading through the manufacturer’s website.

When researching these items, it is essential to note any patent numbers on the products or packaging as well as on the manufacturer’s website. Doing this allows you to quickly search for any patents related to these items.

While researching your products, you may come across patents that are unrelated to what you’re investigating. This could be a helpful indication of potential infringement issues. In such cases, evaluate the patent’s status (active/inactive, licensed or not), scope of claims, validity and enforceability as well as novelty.

Finally, it is wise to review any litigation history associated with the patents-in-question. Litigation histories provide invaluable insight into how patents were defended and litigation challenges handled. They also reveal whether there are hidden litigation issues which could impact your investment decision.

2. Identifying the Patent Owners

Intellectual property refers to any non-physical asset owned by a company, such as inventions, brand names, images, text and audio/video materials. The value of these assets depends heavily on how much time and effort has been put into them by their creator.

Therefore, it is critical for investors to thoroughly assess the patents-at-issue of a target company. To do this, an exhaustive due diligence investigation should be conducted using an IP due diligence checklist.

The initial step of an IP due diligence checklist is to identify patents and their owners. This requires a comprehensive examination of the patent’s scope, freedom to operate restrictions and potential infringement issues.

Therefore, this can be the most time-consuming part of an IP due diligence investigation. Therefore, it’s essential to hire a knowledgeable IP expert to conduct this task for you.

One important question to ask when considering a patent is who was the original inventor? This could be an individual, team of people or company.

In addition to identifying the original inventor, it is essential to confirm that their patent has not been transferred. Doing this allows potential buyers to avoid any unpaid maintenance fees or renewals that might be owed.

Another essential factor to consider is whether the patent has been commercialized or licensed. This can have an impact on the value of the patent, particularly if the company intends to utilize it internally.

Finally, patent ownership is essential to an IP owner’s ability to enforce their rights and prevent infringement. Therefore, it’s essential for IP owners to monitor the market for any infringers and obtain a demand letter (also known as a cease and desist letter) from an attorney when suspected infringement is discovered.

3. Identifying the Patents’ Scope

Identification of a patent’s scope is an integral component of patent due diligence, providing insight into how well-written the patent may be and helping evaluate its strength and value. This knowledge allows commercial decisions to be made with confidence during examination, with claims outlining all elements and components covered by a given patent.

The scope of a patent is essential to understanding its potential economic impact on a business, if any. This is because the patent’s reach determines how many competitors may infringe upon the invention and thus its worthiness in the eyes of investors.

When considering patent eligibility, several factors must be taken into consideration. These include the invention being patented and its manufacture.

Chemical technology inventions, for instance, have broader application areas than product patents since they involve multiple products made from one compound. However, chemical products often fall under one of several product groups manufactured from that compound.

Patents may cover all products created, provided the inventor can prove they are sufficiently non-obvious and technically novel. A biological technology invention may even qualify for a wider scope than product patents since its principles may not be widely known at present.

Recent cases have underscored the significance of understanding how patent scope is defined in practice. For instance, a 1988 Patent Office decision upheld a transgenic mouse inventor’s claim to any “non-human mammal” engineered with their technique.

4. Identifying the Patents’ Freedom to Operate

One of the most crucial aspects of intellectual property (IP) protection is freedom to operate, also known as FTO. This issue is especially pertinent to technology companies when they are creating a new product or process.

Commercialization can be severely limited if a competitor owns a patent for the technologies embedded in your product. That is why many businesses strive to secure their “freedom to operate” at an early stage, guaranteeing that production, marketing and use of their item do not infringe upon other people’s IP rights.

A freedom to operate search is often conducted as part of a larger patent due diligence process. This involves evaluating granted and pending patents across all markets in which you plan to market, sell or manufacture your product.

This requires searching the patent literature for issued and pending patents, as well as studying databases at various national and regional patent offices. This type of search can take a considerable amount of time, and requires extensive expertise and experience.

It is essential to guarantee that any modifications you make to your product, process or service do not infringe upon any identified patents. This is especially critical for companies operating within an agile environment.

Conducting a comprehensive Freedom to Operate analysis at the start of your product development can save you from costly legal battles, business disruption and damaged relationships with customers and partners. An in-depth FTO analysis helps you avoid these issues and increases the likelihood that you’ll secure funding to launch your new product or service successfully.

5. Identifying the Patents’ Infringement Issues

There are various methods to determine if a patent has been infringed upon. Direct infringement occurs when someone makes, uses, offers to sell or imports an invention without the owner’s consent. Indirect infringement requires proof that the infringer had prior knowledge of your patent and acted with intentionality to infringe it.

Defending against an infringement claim can be an expensive and time-consuming process that often involves multiple court appearances and the assistance of experienced legal counsel. Therefore, it’s essential to comprehend the nuances of patent infringement laws so your company is in the best position possible to defend any future suits.

One of the most successful strategies to prevent patent infringement claims is identifying higher risk activities and ensuring they are only undertaken after an intensive analysis has been done. This can be done by determining which innovative business methods may be vulnerable to patent infringement claims.

Another strategy is to position your company to defend against future infringement claims by crafting patent applications that stand apart from prior art and creating defensive technologies or services. This can be accomplished by identifying and analyzing all available prior art documents.

This can be achieved by crafting patents with strong claims and a specification that clearly and specifically distinguish your invention from all known prior art. Furthermore, these claims and specification must be written so your company is safeguarded against infringement claims from competitors.


A patent due diligence checklist is crucial because it helps companies identify potential risks associated with the patents they are interested in acquiring or licensing. Conducting thorough due diligence can help companies avoid costly legal disputes, such as patent infringement lawsuits, which can damage their reputation and financial stability. A patent due diligence checklist can also help companies determine the value of the patent and negotiate better licensing or acquisition deals. Another benefit of a patent due diligence checklist is that it helps to identify potential litigation risks associated with the patent portfolio. Litigation can be costly and time-consuming, and it can have a significant impact on the value of the patent portfolio. By identifying potential litigation risks early on, investors can assess whether a company is worth investing in.