Microsoft Corporation (Redmond, WA)
These are the methods and mechanisms that allow an incremental, non-chronological synchronization of namespaces. In a given environment, entities must have unique names within the namespace, and they can only be referring to entities that exist in the namespace. The process of synchronizing two namespaces is providing a mechanism for indicating that an entity was created because the entity’s name is made, even though that entity is not yet in existence. Once the entity is officially created and the reference is removed. Synchronizing two such namespaces also involves providing a mechanism for signalling that an entity’s distinctive name within the namespace is compromised through the process of synchronization.
Most companies keep important information in a variety of data sources. For example, a human resources department may store information about employees in a human resources data source. The source of human resources data could be organized or arranged according to a specific hierarchy or information structure. A finance department may include details about clients, employees suppliers, employees and suppliers. within the finance department’s data source. The source of data for a finance department may be organized or arranged according to a hierarchy or information structure. There’s likely to be some shared information in both data sources. It is therefore desirable to sync the data.
Synchronizing processes usually employ rules and/or specifications in order to efficiently combine data from multiple sources. The synchronizing process may also depend on an engine that runs software, and a storage that can store the data. The synchronizing procedure can replicate data from various sources into one central storage. But, the data should be maintained in some type of integrity. In order to accomplish this the data from various sources are either pushed or pulled into the central storage. In addition, information may be pulled out or pushed out of the central storage and distributed to different data sources.
Often, the information may be transferred to central storage system by any of the sources of data non-chronologically. The relation between time and changes to the data source and their sources is implied. Because of the nature of synchronization notifications of these modifications might get to the central storage out of order with respect to this temporal relation. This is a situation that could to cause problems when synchronization is taking place. Different examples of devices, methods and systems described below are targeted at those problems.
In short, this describes mechanisms and techniques that enable incremental non-chronological syncronization of namespaces. In a given environment, entities should have distinct names within a given namespace, and entities may only refer to entities thatactually exist within the namespace. The process of synchronizing two namespaces is providing a mechanism for indicating that an entity has been created because an entity’s name has been made even though that entity does not exist. The reference will be deleted once the entity has been officially established. Synchronizing two such namespaces also involves providing a mechanism for indicating that an entity’s unique name in the namespace has been compromised through the synchronizationprocess.
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Granted by the government to protect an invention, patents grant the inventor with exclusive rights to use, create, sell and promote the invention? society is benefited when a brand new technology is introduced to the market. These benefits may be directly realized as people are able to achieve previously impossible feats and indirectly by the economic opportunities which innovation can bring (business growth, employment).
Many drug firms and researchers from universities are seeking patent protection to protect their research and development. A patent can cover the physical or abstract nature of a process or product, or even a method or composition of material unique to the area. Patent protection is granted to an invention that is beneficial, novel, and not previously known to others in the same area.
Patents recognize and give inventors a reward for commercially successful inventions. They act as a motivator for inventors to create. Patents allow inventors and small businesses to know that there’s an excellent chance that they will receive a return on their time, effort and money spent on technological development. They could earn a decent income by their work.
Businesses that have the capacity to:
Secure your products and services
Improve the value, the appearance, and visibility of your products market
Make your company and products stand out from the rest;
Get technical and business information.
Avoid the danger of accidentally using proprietary third-party content, or losing valuable data, original outputs, or any other innovative output.
Patents effectively transform the inventor’s knowledge into a marketable asset which opens new opportunities to create jobs and boost business expansion by licensing or joint ventures.
Small businesses that have patent protection will be more appealing to investors in the commercialization and development of technology.
Patenting can lead to innovative ideas and inventions. These information may be eligible for protection under patents.
Patents are a way to stop untrustworthy third-party companies from earning through the work of inventions.
Commercially successful patent-protected technology revenues can be used to fund technological research and development (R&D), which will improve the chances of developing better technology in the future.
It is possible to use the intellectual property rights of your company to convince lenders and investors that your product has commercial value. Sometimes, a powerful patent could lead to multiple financing opportunities. Patents can be used along with other IP assets as collateral or security for financing. Investors are also able to view your patent assets to boost their valuation of your company. Forbes and other publications have reported that every patent could add anywhere from $500,000 to one million dollars to company valuation.
A well-constructed business plan is crucial for new businesses. It should be based on IP and show what your service or product stands out. Investors will also be amazed if you have IP rights are secure or in the process to becoming secure, and that they are in line with your business strategy.
It is vital to protect an invention prior to filing for patent protection. Public disclosure of an invention before filing it is often detrimental to its originality and render it patent-infringing. Therefore, pre-filing disclosures (e.g. for test-marketing investors, test-marketing, or for other business partners) should only be filed upon signing a confidentiality contract.
There are many kinds of patents, and understanding the different types is crucial to protect your invention. Utility patents cover new processes and machine creations. Design patents cover ornamental designs. Utility patents are the best because they shield the owner from copycats and competition. They are typically issued to improve or alter existing inventions. Utility patents can also be used to cover improvements and modifications in existing inventions. A process patent would be a way to describe the actions or methods of performing a specific act. But, a chemical composition would include a combination of components.
How long does a patent last? Patents for utility last for 20 years from the initial date of filing, however their expirations can be extended because of delays at the patent office, for example.
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When you’re writing a patent application when you are writing a patent application, it is important to conduct an internet search for patents, since the search can provide some insight into other people’s concepts. It will help you limit the scope of your invention. Also, you can find out about the technological advancements in your area of invention. You’ll get a better understanding of what your idea should be and be better prepared to write the patent application.
How to Search for Patents
Patent searches are the initial step to getting your patent. You can do a google patent search or do a USPTO search. Once the patent application is filed, the product covered by the application can be referred to as patent-pending and you can find the patent application on public pair. After the patent office has approved the application, you can do a patent number search to find the granted patent. Your product is now patented. Alongside the USPTO search engine, you can use other search engines, such as espacenet as described below. A patent lawyer or patent attorney can advise you on the process. Patents in the United States are granted by the US trademark and patent office or the United States patent office. The trademark office also evaluates trademark applications.
Are you interested in similar patents? Here are the steps to follow:
1. Think of terms to describe your invention, based on the purpose, composition and use.
Write down a brief and precise explanation of your invention. Avoid using generic terms like “device,” “process,” and “system.” Instead, look for synonyms to the terms you initially chose. Next, note important technical terms and key words.
To help you identify keywords and concepts, use the following questions.
- What is the objective of the invention Is it a utilitarian device or an ornamental design?
- Is the invention a method of creating something or performing some function? Is it a product or process?
- What is the basis of the invention? What is the physical composition of the invention?
- What’s the purpose of this invention?
- What are technical terms and keywords that describe the characteristics of an invention? To assist you in finding the right terms, refer to a technical dictionary.
2. Use these terms to find relevant Cooperative Patent Classifications on the Classification Text Search Tool. If you are unable to locate the appropriate classification to describe your invention, scan through the classification’s Schemas of classes (class schedules) and then try again. If you don’t see any results using the Classification Text Search, you may want to consider replacing the words to describe your invention with synonyms.
3. Examine the CPC Classification Definition for confirmation of the CPC classification you’ve found. The link to the CPC classification definition is provided when the classification you have selected has a blue box that includes “D” to its left. CPC classification definitions can help determine the scope of the classification which is why you can be certain to choose the one that is relevant. These definitions may also include research tips or other suggestions that could be helpful for further investigation.
4. The Patents Full-Text Database and the Image Database allow you to retrieve patent documents that include the CPC classification. By focusing on abstracts and representative drawings it is possible to narrow your search to the most relevant patent publications.
5. This selection of patent publications is the most appropriate to look at for any similarity to your idea. Pay close attention to the specification and claims. Contact the applicant as well as the patent examiner for additional patents.
6. Find patent applications published in the public domain using the CPC classification you picked in Step 3 from the Applications Full-Text and Image Database. You may also employ the same method of search that you employed in Step 4 to narrow your search results to only the most relevant patent applications by reviewing the abstracts and drawings on each page. Then, you must carefully review the patent applications published and pay particular attention to the claims as well as additional drawings.
7. You can search for other US patent publications using keyword searching in AppFT or PatFT databases, and also classification searching of patents not issued in the United States as according to below. You can also make use of search engines on the internet to search non-patent documents that describe inventions in the literature. Here are some examples:
- Add keywords to your search. Keyword searches may turn up documents that are not well-categorized or have missed classifications during Step 2. For example, US patent examiners often supplement their classification searches with keyword searches. Think about the use of technical engineering terminology rather than everyday words.
- Search for foreign patents using the CPC classification. Then, re-run the search using international patent office search engines such as Espacenet, the European Patent Office’s worldwide patent publication database of over 130 million patent publications. Other national databases include:
- European Patent Office (EPO) provides esp@cenet to access a network of Europe’s patent databases with access to machine translation of European patents.
- Japan Patent Office (JPO) – with access to machine translations of Japanese patents.
- World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) offers PATENTSCOPE with a full-text search of published international patent applications and machine translations for some documents, as well as a list of international patent databases.
- Korean Intellectual Property Rights Information Service (KIPRIS)
- State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) with machine translation of Chinese patents.
- Other International Intellectual Property Offices with online patent databases include Australia, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, India, Israel, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and Taiwan.
- Search non-patent literature. Inventions can be made public in many non-patent publications. It is recommended that you search journals, books, websites, technical catalogs, conference proceedings, and other print and electronic publications.
To review your search, you can hire a registered patent attorney to assist. A preliminary search will help one better prepare to talk about their invention and other related inventions with a professional patent attorney. In addition, the attorney will not spend too much time or money on patenting basics.